In November 2020, Tom and Marian Jensen had flown their beautifully restored N3N in support of our Auburn Veterans flyby. After our formation briefing, Tom mentioned that he'd be glad to let me fly with him in his N3N, since Marian rarely wanted him to fly solo. In December, Tom called to offer me an N3N flight, but I was already in the air in my Warrior. I successfully made an intercept of Tom using ADS-B while flying back from Tacoma Narrows, and was able to rejoin for a decent air-to-air N3N photo.
The N3N is a primary training biplane that was designed and built by the U.S. Navy at the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, PA. The general configuration was traditional for the mid-1930s: Radial engine, tandem open cockpits, conventional tailwheel configuration and fabric covering for much of the structure. Under the covering, the design was very unique for the time with an entirely aluminum structure for the wings, fuselage and tail. A number of the beams, shapes and formers were leftovers from the Navy dirigible program. The entire left side of the fuselage has removable aluminum panels allowing quick and easy access to all internal components. Tom's aircraft, an N3N-3, was the final variant of the N3N, with a production of 816 aircraft. All early N3N aircraft were delivered with the Navy-built Wright R-760-2 engine, later upgraded to the much more reliable R-760-8. The Navy had the manufacturing rights to produce the engines from Curtis Wright. The N3N-3 was the only WWII era naval aircraft that was approved for intentional inverted spins.
The N3N is often confused with the more prevalent Stearman. Both aircraft were designed in 1934, with the N3N produced in two major versions, wheels and floats. There are three major differences between the N3N and the Stearman:
Wing construction - The N3N has an aluminum wing, extruded aluminum spars and sheet aluminum ribs. The Stearman has a wing made entirely of wood.
Fuselage construction - The N3N has a riveted, extruded aluminum fuselage, while the Stearman has a welded steel tube fuselage (like a Piper Cub).
Aspect ratio is one of the biggest differences. The N3N has a wing that is nearly 2 feet longer but the chord is 3 inches narrower.
Most N3N-3 aircraft were declared surplus during and immediately after World War II, but about 100 airframes were kept by the Navy. The N3N was no longer used for primary training but stayed in service to provide orientation rides for midshipmen at the Naval Academy in the seaplane configuration. They continued in use until 1961, making the N3N-3 the longest serving (and last serving) biplane in the U.S. military.
N3N N44707 was restored by Ron Ochs in 1985 after a seven year restoration. After flying F-86s in Korea, Ron wanting to restore an antique plane, and bought an N3N crop duster, then started collecting parts. "It was hard to find parts, so I had to buy entire junk piles for parts. I sold that plane and built another N3N out of the junk pile." Ron had the original data plate, so N3N N44707 became a restoration, not a replica. According to Ron's son Ben, the N3N was always hangared, flown well and cared for, with Ron applying the paint and engine work and winning numerous awards for his restoration. Tom Jensen acquired the N3N after a demonstration flight with Ben. The brakes were original drum brakes when Tom acquired it, and were OK after adjustment, but only worked well for a couple of flights after they were adjusted. Tom Jensen installed new disc brakes, which did wonders for ground handling.
After a thorough pre-flight orientation and startup, Tom had me maneuver down the taxiway at Evergreen Sky to get a feel for ground handling and vision over the nose. The new brakes were excellent, and the only thing I noticed after taxiing was the amount of back stick pressure needed while taxiing could cause development of 'Popeye arms' quite quickly. Tom let me fly two takeoffs, with coaching to relax back stick pressure at 40 knots, then raise the tail. I had decent peripheral vision with my tall sitting height, then good forward visibility once the tail came up. Almost immediately, with a very slight bit of aft stick pressure, we were airborne and climbing smoothly, enjoying the open cockpit airflow, blocked quite effectively by the small windshield in front. Visibility was outstanding, except by the area blocked by the wings, of course. The four ailerons provided excellent roll control, so clearing for traffic while maneuvering became a joy. I settled to a cruise throttle setting at 1750 RPM, and reveled in the handling and visibility on this glorious Spring afternoon.
Besides the primary goal of aircraft orientation, we had two other missions to accomplish. I was coordinating a missing man flyby the next day over the Tahoma National Cemetery, and Tom had received word that the memorial service would be held in an area surrounded in trees on three sides, necessitating a change to our normal north-to-south run in. Tom and I flew a practice run in from east-to-west in the N3N, noting landmarks and headings, with great vis from the open cockpit of our 'target'.
The second mission also entailed a 'target', specifically air-to-air against a falling roll of streaming toilet paper. Tom gave me too much credit for my former F-15 air-to-air, with no coaching other than 'Go For It', and made me jettison the first roll at 3500 feet over open forest and try as many 'intercepts' as possible before a 2500 foot safety floor, with no help. The streamer descended much faster than I had first anticipated, but luckily, fighter pilot instinct kicked in, and I was able to make two successful 'intercepts' on the target before 2500 feet. The maneuverability of the N3N was excellent, especially in roll! Tom jettisoned a second 'target' from the back seat for his passes, nicking the top of the descending streamer on two of his passes.
With the earlier missions accomplished, we then proceeded on our 'backup' mission, namely flying over the White River, using the great N3N maneuverability to stay with every bend and turn as we followed the White River toward Auburn. As the population on the edges of the river increased, we headed back to Evergreen Sky. Tom demoed a smooth turning final and greased the N3N on to the grass runway.
Thanks, Tom (with a newly assigned tactical callsign of 'T.P.') for this great introduction to the N3N. It was the perfect aircraft to fly as the 100th different aircraft that I've flown over the years! I'm ready for summer and more air-to-air!
Although you may have spent four long years as a cadet at the USAF Academy, you weren't guaranteed a pilot training slot until you successfully completed the Flight Screening program. Back when I went through the Academy (a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away), the Flight Screening program was conducted while flying the Cessna T-41C, a higher-horsepower 172 configured with a 210-hp IO-360 for the rarified Colorado air. Although the screening program usually involved 25-30 hours of flight time, I felt ripped off when I only received 15 hours of flight time, due to my experience as a cadet soaring instructor. The T-41C was fun to fly, and I wanted more flight time, especially since they were paying for the gas!
In 1993, the USAFA T-41 fleet was replaced with the Slingsby T-3A Firefly for the flight screening role, but the USAFA Slingsby T-3A fleet was grounded and scrapped after a number of fatal accidents. The Air Force now trains all prospective USAF pilots and combat systems officers through a program known as Initial Flight Training, which makes use of the Diamond DA20.
The two-seat DV20 was originally developed and manufactured by the Austrian aircraft manufacturer Diamond Aircraft in the early 90s. Diamond used its experience on the Diamond HK36 Super Dimona motorglider to develop the DV20. Diamond built a Canadian facility for the North American market, and the Canadian-produced aircraft are designated as the DA20 Katana. Diamond's previous sailplane and motorglider design heritage is evident in the DA-20s long, graceful wing, sailplane-like T-tail, and bubble canopy.
As I prepared to support DG-1000 sailplane checkouts at Arlington for the Seattle Glider Council, I found out that one of the previous DG-1000 group members owned a DA20, and was looking for a flight refresher after his annual and limited recent flying. Nick Long sent me a copy of the DA20 flight manual, and we agreed to meet on the next good weather day at Arlington.
Nick's DA20 is a Canadian-built DA20-A1, powered by an 80 hp Rotax 912F3, and sporting a constant-speed prop. The DA20-A1 uses a 2.27:1 reduction gearbox to reduce the engine's relatively high 5,800 rpm shaft speed to a more conventional 2,400 rpm for the propeller. Nick and I completed a detailed engine and overall aircraft pre-flight, both to familiarize me with the aircraft, and also to catch any post-annual discrepancies.
Entering the cockpit is straight forward, and I was pleasantly surprised with the shoulder and legroom in the relatively small aircraft. Ground steering is by differential braking, and I noticed my size 12 feet were a bit squeezed in the rudder pedal foot box. Taxiing the Katana in a straight line via differential braking took a bit to get used to, almost as humbling as learning to taxi the Nanchang CJ-6!
Although the winds favored runway 29 at Arlington, Nick wanted to use the full 5300' runway 34 for the first takeoff post-annual, and he did a commendable cross-wind takeoff and climbout. You could feel the gusts with the Diamond's light wing loading, but the ailerons required only slight movements of the stick to correct for the gusts. Nick had mentioned that he had been flying a bit above the recommended approach speed of 57 knots, which is well above the 37 knot stall, causing some extra floating. The first crosswind landing on 34 still had a bit of float, but with the great visibility you can pick and easily anticipate your touchdown point. The fixed landing gear seemed quite strong, obviously built with student training in mind.
I took over the flight controls as we moved to runway 29, and the great bubble canopy helped pick up the seemingly always busy Arlington traffic, especially since both runways 29 and 34 were in use. The flight control harmony felt nice, and a bit of rudder added while starting turns seemed to correct well for the bit of adverse yaw. Due to traffic ahead flying 'bomber patterns', I had a long final to adjust the power, pitch and trim to fly an almost hands-off final, then added a little power for a soft-field landing on 29. The DA20 is a joy to fly, and would be fun throttling back and climbing in thermals with that great wing.
Nick flew a few more patterns for his currency, and even in gusty, choppy winds, the airplane performed well, and was quite controllable. Thanks for the DA20 orientation, Nick, and I hope to join you again for a thermaling workout in your Diamond!
Van's Aircraft has designed a hugely successful suite of homebuilt aircraft, with over 10,800 RV's built and flown as of early 2021. I've been privileged to check out the RV-6, RV-7, RV-8, RV-10 and RV-12 in-flight over the past few years. All the RV series aircraft have very responsive flight controls, crisp aileron response, great visibility, and are just a joy to fly.
The latest addition to the RV-series is the RV-14. I have been planning checkouts for the sale of a late friend's Pipistrel Sinus, based at Sequim, and the new owners offered to shuttle me from Renton in one of their personally owned aircraft. Two of the new owners, Dave Miller and Bill Benedict, had recently built a gorgeous RV-14A, painted in bright Porsche Racing yellow, so their offer of a couple of RV-14 flights sounded great!
I met Dave Miller on the ramp at Renton, next to my Warrior. My first impression was that the RV-14 sits taller than the RV-6/7. Cockpit entry was easy, and I noticed the welcome head, leg and shoulder room. The upright seating position and large bubble canopy provides outstanding visibility. Dave gave me a quick RV-14 safety overview, then a short orientation on his impressive avionics suite. Dave's RV-14A is equipped with a Garmin G3X, G5 and GTN-750, a Garmin autopilot, and a glareshield-mounted Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) indicator, which is a great head up instrument for maneuvering and optimal flying in the pattern and landing phase.
Once cleared for takeoff, Dave gave me the flight controls right after a spirited acceleration and very short takeoff behind the powerful 210HP IO-390 engine. Similar to the other RV-series aircraft, the airplane just feels right as soon as you take the flight controls. It flies like a small fighter, being very responsive and crisp but not jerky. As I climbed out from Renton, my only issue was staying below the 3000 ft base of the Class Bravo, since the -14 really likes to climb. I throttled back to 55% power, which still gave us a respectable 148-knot cruise speed, burning only 8.5 gals per hour! Although larger than the RV-6/7, the structure meets the aerobatic category standards of +6/-3Gs when flown at the aerobatic gross weight of 1900 lb. Although we didn't fly any aerobatics on our two flights, I did a few steep turns and reversals, and combined with the great cockpit visibility, I had visions of flying fighters resurrected again.
The RV-14's generous wing area and large slotted flaps kept our landing speed low into Sequim and Renton with smooth landings on both runways. RVs are known for short-field capability and the RV-14 is no exception. The combination of good cockpit room, great visibility, lots of power, superb handling and awesome avionics made it hard to give the RV-14 back to Dave as he headed home. I'd like to check out RV-14 formation flying in the future, since the handling is so superb.
Dave - Thanks for the opportunity to fly the newest bird in the RV series, you built a great one, and yes - I WANT ONE!
In late February, one of our Cascade Warbird members, Bob Hill, received a short-notice request for a memorial flyby over the Tahoma National Cemetery. As the Cascade Warbirds Ops Officer, I put a call out for any available warbird owners who might be available to support the requested flyby. Although we usually have a large number of volunteers, the winter weather, normal winter maintenance and COVID restrictions have kept the availability and proficiency level of our warbirds pilots quite low. Bob Hill requested to fly the missing man position in his IAR-832 for the memorial, with Dave Desmon joining in his recently re-engined Navion. Smokey Johnson’s newly acquired SNJ was in maintenance in California, but he volunteered to lead the formation in his Bonanza, since from the ground only an expert could tell he wasn’t a 'true warbird'.
We learned that our missing man formation would be honoring Glenn Ewing, a Naval Aviator who had flown with the famous 'Black Ponies' in Vietnam. In 1969 the Light Attack Squadron Four (VAL-4) was commissioned at Naval Air Station North Island, California. Operating the OV-10A Bronco, it was the first Navy squadron of its type, deployed to Vietnam its part of the 'Brown Water Navy'. Operating from Binh Thuy Air Base and Vung Tau Army Airfield in the Mekong Delta, the Black Ponies provided direct support for U.S., Allied and Vietnamese operations until it was dis-established in April 1972.
I had briefed Glenn's wife Kathleen that we would attempt to fly a four-ship, weather and aircraft availability dependent. We had been in a stretch of rain and IFR weather, but Kathleen said she had faith that the sun would appear for the day of the memorial service. With Kathleen using higher powers to work on the weather, it was my job to come up with a fourth aircraft. In the past I've flown Justin Draft's Nanchang CJ-6 for memorial flybys, but the 'Chang was basically pickled for the winter, awaiting Justin's return from the sandbox. I told Smokey that I'd had no luck recruiting a fourth aircraft, and Smokey felt the flyby wouldn't look good with only a three-ship, so he asked me if I'd make it a four-ship by flying my Piper Warrior in the formation. My response was easy - sure, if you can fly slow enough!
As the day of the memorial service approached, the weather magically cleared from the south, and all four aircraft gathered at Paine Field for our formation briefing. Just as our noon briefing time approached, Dave Desmon called to let us know that his alternator on his Navion just went inop, so we were down to a three-ship. Smokey, Bob and I briefed a three-ship plan, with an early start to cover ground delays and my slow cruising speed en route. Just as we were ready to crank, Dave called with good news that he had isolated the alternator issue and MIGHT be able to join, and to hold our three-ship startup.
We delayed past our planned start, and luckily Dave did get his Navion alternator to work, and we gladly taxied for takeoff as a four-ship. Of course, Paine Field then became saturated with Cessnas landing, then an arriving Horizon Air flight as our TOT time over Tahoma rapidly approached. Finally cleared for takeoff, we launched and rejoined the four-ship, where I was able to use high RPM and angular cutoff to join the flight. Smokey provided great wingman consideration by selecting a bit of flaps for the rest of the flight, to allow me to hang in tight formation with my throttle nearly fully forward.
Our good luck continued as we neared Renton and our starting point at Lake Youngs, since Tom Jensen, our ground coordinator at the National Cemetery, informed us that the memorial service was running slightly late, and he would call us in from our orbit when needed. Any time Smokey descended, even without a power increase, the lack of drag compared to my 'gear down and bolted' Warrior caused him to creep ahead. Bob Hill suggested that all four of us put our gear down for the pass (thanks Bob), but once level, I had a tiny bit of throttle available to lock into position on Smokey's right wing.
As we neared our orbit point of Lake Sawyer, Tom made the call to start our run-in immediately into the completely clear skies over the Tahoma National Cemetery. Smokey was as smooth as glass flying lead, and we hit directly overhead in surprisingly tight and aligned formation, especially for a bunch of rusty warbird pilots. Bob Hill pulled his missing man with smoke on to the west, and the family and friends at the memorial service said the flyby looked and sounded great from the ground. No one on the ground could even tell that two of the 'warbirds' were a Bonanza and a Warrior! Whatever it takes to support our Veterans, we made it happen!
After reading the above summary of our memorial flight, Kathleen Ewing sent this heartfelt reply: "Stan and fellow great pilots, that was beautiful, loved the whole telling and how you made it all work, laughed at parts and felt humble for all the time it took you guys. I felt “the wind beneath you and the planes and prayed gentle landings." Glenn would have loved it. The flag I am looking at right now brings pride and tears at the same time. Your gift to us will be remembered by me and my family and friends to share with future generations. Thanks from our hearts."
The city of Auburn, WA has been hosting a Veteran's Day weekend celebration since 1965. In 2020, due to COVID restrictions, a planned parade was downsized to a Veterans Vehicle procession through downtown Auburn. Former F-105 Wild Weasel pilot Dan Barry had previously flown over the parade in his Aeronca L-3, and contacted me to try to coordinate more participation from local NorthWest warbird pilots. Due to our minimal flying opportunities due to lockdowns and cancellations this year, I received enthusiastic response from 13 aviators to join in a November flyby.
I was able to obtain ramp space in front of the Boeing Employees Flying Association (BEFA) hangar at the Renton airport. Even though we took a number of ‘pre-combat losses’ from our original potential list of 13 airplanes, 5 intrepid aviators made it to Renton, with 4 making it 'to the target' over Auburn.
‘Pre-combat losses’ were as follows:
Troy Larson/John Parker (Video Chase Bonanza) - Cancelled early as a safety measure due to COVID issues in the Parker household - Get well, Parker family!
Joshua Weinstein (T-34) - Stuck in annual
Tom Hoag (Seabee) - Starter issues
Tom Rogers (Stearman) - Busted oil line
Bob Hill (IAR-823) - Timeline issues with Museum of Flight preparation
Smokey Johnson (Bonanza) - Mechanical issues
Vic Norris (IAR-823) - WX cancel/freezing rain at Bremerton
Doug Clough (Stearman) would actually be considered a ‘combat loss', since Doug was able to launch in his Stearman from Kapowsin, but had to turn back due to IFR conditions north of Auburn.
The five aviators that made it to Renton had to delay also due to weather.
Ryan Georgi and I launched as a weather ship in Ryan's 1946 Luscombe 8E. I had never flown a Luscombe previously, but always enjoy flying in any airplane that has sticks instead of yokes! The Luscombe has an inherent short takeoff and landing capability with its wing design, and with an 85-hp engine and no flaps, we still leaped off Renton's runway 16 in a few hundred feet. We cruised south among the pockets of low clouds, fog and rain, while I got a feel for the Luscombe's flight controls, noticing slightly heavier ailerons forces than I had anticipated. The airplane is quite stable in pitch, and can be easily trimmed for hands-off flight. It's an honest airplane, with surprisingly good over-the-nose visibility for a tail dragger. The only real difference in the right seat is that there are no brakes on the right side, with heel brakes only on the left.
Once Ryan and I found acceptable weather over Auburn, we raced back to rally the 5-ship. Just after run-up, Tanner Matheny and Damon 'Manpad' Kroes had to ground abort due to an imminent ‘hot chocolate recycling drainage leak’ from the two young co-pilots in the backseat, Dylan and Henry. Crisis averted, but too late to join the 4-ship. Tanner made a run to join the 4-ship, but had to turn for home due to WX.
So, Dave Desmon’s 4-ship evaporated to a single, and Dave smoked to the target solo, with smoke on, with Dan Shoemaker and Ron 'Capt Mac' McElroy in the cockpit. In trail was the only true close formation of the event, with Ryan getting his first experience as lead (with me in the right seat for guidance), and Dan Barry in his Aeronca L-3 stuck like glue on the left wing. You looked great, Col. Barry!
In trail of the two-ship were Tom and Marian Jensen, who actually pushed it up and were able to join to a nice route formation right over the target! Kudos to Tom and Marian for braving the cold, rain and wind in their open cockpit N3N! They were awesome! I think Marian bent the throttle forward in the front cockpit for the extra speed!
After our target runs, all involved separated for their home airports.
Thanks to all involved in providing a positive salute to our Veterans. Also thanks to BEFA for their hangar use and and Boeing for their ramp space at Renton. Well done all!